By Richard Gwynallen
1764 – 1844
Relationship to Fawn: 6th great-grandmother
Hannah Tedder married William Mooneham on 28 February 1785 in Wake County, North Carolina. They appeared in the 1800 Federal Census as living in Hillsborough, North Carolina, which is Orange County. Orange County was reduced in area in 1771 when the western part was combined with the eastern part of Rowan County to form Guilford County. Another part was combined with parts of Cumberland County and Johnston County to form Wake County. The southern part of what remained became Chatham County. Many of these county names will crop up in this essay.
The Moonehams had been based in Granville County and Bertie Precinct. Jacob may have been the first to migrate to Wake County or Orange County.
There does not seem to be any known birth certificate for Hannah Tedder, but researchers agree that Hannah was most likely a daughter of Benjamin Tudor. Benjamin was the younger son of John Tedder, whose inventory of estate was listed in 1721 in Surry, Virginia. Benjamin was born about 1718, his older brother, John, about 1695. Both used the surname of Tudor.
After their father’s death, their mother re-married to Henry Rose. By 27 June 1750, Benjamin is found living on 200 acres on Poplar Creek in Brunswick County, Virginia, land deeded to him by his step-father, Henry Rose. He is believed to have married around this time.
Poplar Creek today is about nine miles in length in the southwest corner of the county.
It empties into the present Gaston Lake or Roanoke (Stanton) River on the southern border. The southwestern border at the time of Benjamin’s and John’s gift from Henry Rose was in fact that of Lunenburg. Today, it is Mecklenburg, which was taken from the southern part of Lunenburg.
From 1752 – 1760 Benjamin appears in the Vestry Book of St Andrews Parish as resident of Brunswick County, Virginia.
On 30 May 1762 Benjamin and a Henry Tudor witnessed the will of William Watkins in Sussex County, Virginia. William identified Henry Tudor as his son-in-law. In the terms of the time, this could have meant step-son. Both Benjamin and Henry were listed as living in Albermarle Parish.
On 27 January 1764, Benajamin’s brother, John Tudor, bought 160 acres on the east side of
Fishing Creek from John Kirkland for 32 pounds current money of Virginia. at this time he was a resident of Granville County, North Carolina. Later that year, on 4 October 1764, he sold 160 acres in Brunswick County, Virginia for 45 pounds. He was still on the tax list in 1769, with one other male adult, his oldest son, Henry.
It is likely that sometime before 1775 Benjamin and his wife went to Granville County North Carolina to scout for land, and likely that they lived with his mother, Mary Rose, and brother John, on the 160 acres his mother and brother owned on the East side of Fishing Creek.
After Benjamin and his wife returned to Virginia, they sold their land in Sussex County and removed to somewhere in the vicinity of Granville County, perhaps in Chatham County where a Benjamin witnessed a land deed in 1785 and three of our Benjamin’s sons are listed in the 1800 Census. The sale of the land appears in the Virginia Deed Book E, pp. 380 – 381: “1775, 16 November. Benjamin and Mary Tedder of Granville County, North Carolina, to John Avent of Albermarle Parish, Sussex County (VA), 119 acres, 34 Pounds.”
It appears that two of the sons of Benjamin and his brother John, also named Benjamin and John, were members of the Granville County, North Carolina militia in 1771. They were soldiers in Captain James Yancy’s company of foot soldiers belonging to a regiment commanded by Colonel Richard Henderson.
John Tudor seems to have served two other tours of duty in the North Carolina militia. He went on an expedition against the Cherokees under Captain Nathaniel Snipes, but was forced to turn back due to the lack of wagons and pack horses. He also served under Captain William Hicks, Colonel Taylor, and Generals Greene and Morgan at the battle of Guilford Court House, North Carolina.
Tudor researchers are certain this is John Jr., as John Sr. had signed an oath of allegiance to the Crown. Therefore, it is unlikely that John Sr. fought against the British at Guilford Court House, although he may have been in the militia the other two times. John Jr. would only have been around seventeen in 1771. However, John Jr.’s surviving pension application does indicate he was in the militia at that time. If it was John Jr. that appeared in the 1771 muster then the Benjamin would most likely be Benjamin Jr. serving with his cousin. It unlikely Benjamin Sr. who would be around fifty-three at the time would be serving as a foot soldier.
Benjamin’s children include Rebecca (Beck) (about 1759), Sarah (about 1754), James (about 1760), Benjamin, Jr., John, William, Harmon (about 1762), Anna (about 1770), and most likely Hannah (about 1765).
It was this move to Granville County that brought the Tudors/Tedders into the area of the Moonehams.
Benjamin’s son John was in Wake County before receiving 484 acres on Great Beaver Creek in Chatham County (Entry date 1 March 1779, issue date 31 March 1780). His name appears as Tedder in the 1790 and 1800 censuses.
Like her other siblings, Hannah appears to have adopted the Tedder spelling at least by the time of her marriage to Jacob Mooneham. Other Tedders, most likely her brothers, including John and Benjamin, Jr., were already identified in Wake County before 1785. In 1784, William Tedder, likely her brother, and his brother-in-law William Redding of Cumberland County, were contracted to lay off a road from the end of a new road opened in Wake County to the county line with Cumberland County into the road to Daniel’s Ford on the Cape Fear River. William had settled in Cumberland by this time. She might have been living with one of her brothers, or been introduced to the Moonehams through them.
A Note on Hillsborough
Since Jacob and Hannah appear in Hillsborogh by 1800, it’s worth noting the role Hillsborough played in the late 18th century. Founded in 1754, Hillsborough was an early Piedmont colonial town where court was held. In the late 1760s, tensions between Piedmont farmers and county officers were a major influence behind the Regulator movement, which had its epicenter in Hillsborough.
Several droughts had contributed to crop loss and economic depression in the inland counties. This led to debt and many farmers unable to pay taxes. The tax system was in the hands of local sheriffs, who were often corrupt.
As the western districts were under-represented in the colonial legislature, it was difficult for the farmers to obtain redress by legislative means. Ultimately, the frustrated farmers took to arms and closed the court in Hillsborough, dragging those they saw as corrupt officials through the streets. The most heavily affected areas were said to be those of Rowan, Anson, Orange, Granville, and Cumberland counties. It was a struggle between mostly working farmers and artisans, who made up the majority of the backcountry population of North and South Carolina, and the wealthy planter elite, who comprised about 5% of the population, yet maintained almost total control of the government
The government defeated the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance in May 1771. Several trials were held after the war, resulting in the hanging of six Regulators at Hillsborough on June 19, 1771.
This would have been an historical drama that the Mooneyhams, as small farmers in the affected areas, would have lived through prior to just years before Jacob and Hannah’s marriage.
Hillsborough would later take a unique position at the start of the Civil War, only reluctantly supporting the secession of North Carolina.
Tedder Family Origins
Tedder is a variation on the Welsh name Tewdur or Tudor. Originally a Welsh forename, it is derived from the words tud “territory” and rhi “king”. Anyone residing in such a territory, or on land of a family with that surname, could have adopted the name as surnames became required by law. Anciently, the family is connected with the small village of Penmynydd in Anglesey, North Wales.
While a Welsh name in its origins, the name spread beyond Wales and the English counties bordering Wales throughout northern England, and in London and the surrounding areas, from the 16th century onward. With the ascension of the Tudors to the throne, the Welsh community in and around London grew, and remains significant today. Therefore, our immigrant ancestor may not have been living in Wales at the time of emigration,
When and from where Hannah’s grandfather, John, arrived in Virginia has not been proven conclusively.
However, some Tedder researchers, such as Robert Tedder writing on geanealogy.com in 2012 are satisfied that the immigrant ancestor was Thomas Tedder, who departed from London at the age of 19 on the ship Peter Bonadventure in 1635, and who settled in Gloucester Virginia.
The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607 – 1660, by Peter Wilson Coldham, does contain the ship list showing Thomas Tedder for the period of 26 March – 4 April 1635. Thomas is listed among those as note “with certificate provided at Gravesend”. This would have been the certificate of conformity to the Anglican Church of England. Gravesend is a town in Kent, England, 21 miles southeast of central London on the south bank of the Thames. The town received a Royal Charter in 1401 allowing for the operation of boats between London and Gravesend. The ship, under Thomas Harmon, was bound initially for St Christophers and the Barbadoes. Another 19 year old named Thomas Evans was also on board. This may have been the Evans whose family would end up living near the Tedders.
This date of departure would place Thomas Tedder’s emigration during the period known as The Great Migration. which lasted from 1629 to 1640. These were the years when the Puritans in England came under greatest pressure. In 1629, King Charles I dissolved Parliament, thus removing legislative processes for Puritan leaders to secure recognition and leaving them vulnerable to persecution. The Great Migration is usually used in reference to the settlement of New England, but emigrants of the era traveled to the southern colonies as well. In 1640, when Parliament was reconvened, migration, particularly to New England, dropped sharply.
Thomas, married a Mary, and they had at least three sons. “One son, Andrew Tedder of Gloucester is documented as giving a heifer to Robert Cale in 1670. I believe this is the same Andrew listed in the Library of Virginia Colonial Records in 1678 as a merchant. A second son, Edward, lived in the 1670s near the Lilley and Thomas Evans families. Edward was initially documented as Tidder then Tidderton. He . . . received 93 acres of land in Virginia in 1678. By 1702 William Titterton, Edward’s son, the Lilleys and Thomas Evans are in Eastern North Carolina. In 1702 William Titterton’s son, also William, married Sarah Lilley. Some of William’s descendants stayed in North Carolina and others spread to Georgia, Mississippi and other places.
“I believe the third son was named John and is the same John found in the Library of Virginia in 1677 and 1697.” (Robert Tedder)
This John was the father of our Benjamin Tudor, and Hannah’s grandfather.